if you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile， you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. depending on whom you are addressing， the problems will be different. if you are talking to a group of managers， you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries； alternatively if you are addressing secretaries， you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.
here is an example， which i heard at a nurses convention， of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. a man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by st. peter. he sees wonderful accommodations， beautiful gardens， sunny weather， and so on. everyone is very peaceful， polite and friendly until， waiting in a line for lunch， the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat， who rushes to the head of the line， grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself.“who is that？”the new arrival asked st. peter.“oh， thats god”came the reply，“but sometimes he thinks hes a doctor.”
if you are part of the group which you are addressing， you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and itll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairmans notorious bad taste in ties. with other audiences you mustnt attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. you will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoat like the post office or the telephone system.
if you feel awkward being humorous， you must practice so that it becomes more natural. include a few casual and apparently off_the_cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. often its the delivery which causes the audience to smile， so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a lighthearted remark.
look for the humor. it often comes from the unexpected. a twist on a familiar quote“if at first you dont succeed， give up”or a play on words or on a situation. search for exaggeration and understatements. look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.
the best title for the text may be .
[a]use humor effectively
[b]various kinds of humor
[c]add humor to speech
[d]different humor strategies[2002年45题]
when it comes to the slowing economy， ellen spero isnt biting her nails just yet. but the 47_year_old manicurist isnt cutting， filing or polishing as many nails as shed like to， either. most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly， but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. spero blames the softening economy.“im a good economic indicator，”she says，“i provide a service that people can do without when theyre concerned about saving some dollars.”so spero is downscaling， shopping at middle_brow dillards department store near her suburban cleveland home， instead of neiman marcus.“i dont know if other clients are going to abandon me， too.”she says.
even before alan greenspans admission that americas red_hot economy is cooling， lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. from car dealerships to gap outlets， sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. for retailers， who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between thanksgiving and christmas， the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. already， experts say， holiday sales are off 7 percent from last years pace. but dont sound any alarms just yet. consumers seem only mildly concerned， not panicked， and many say they remain optimistic about the economys long_term prospects even as they do some modest belt_tightening.
consumers say theyre not in despair because， despite the dreadful headlines， their own fortunes still feel pretty good. home prices are holding steady in most regions. in manhattan，“theres a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range， predominantly fed by wall street bonuses，”says broker barbara corcoran. in san francisco， prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets.“instead of 20 to 30 offers， now maybe you only get two or three， says john tealdi， a bay area real_estate broker. and most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.
many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. employers wouldnt mind a litter fewer bubbles in the job market. many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock_market swings， which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. diners might see an upside， too. getting a table at manhattans hot new alain ducasses restaurant used to be impossible. not anymore. for that， greenspan&co. may still be worth toasting.
to which of the following is the author likely to agree？
[a]a new boom， on the horizon.
[b]tighten the belt， the single remedy.
[c]caution all right， panic not.
[d]the more ventures， the more chance.[2004年55题]