Nature:超级基因确实只有一个

关键词:超级基因,只有一个,燕尾蝶

在一些蝴蝶品种中,一个性别(通常是雌性)模仿某一有毒物种的翅膀的图案。在上个世纪60年代,该现象被认为是受一个“超级基因”的控制。

最近,研究人员达成这样的共识:超级基因很可能是成团的、密切相关的基因,其中每个影响翅膀模仿的一个不同方面。现在,Marcus Kronforst及同事令人吃惊地发现,在一个经典的超级基因模仿(拟态)现象中(所涉及的蝴蝶为燕尾蝴蝶),超级基因真的是一个基因。另一个令人吃惊的发现是,该基因是性别决定通道中一个众所周知的组成部分,被称为doublesex。

基因表达和DNA序列差异数据表明,同种型表达差异和蛋白序列演化也有助于使doublesex拟态等位基因之间产生差异。因此,燕尾蝴蝶的拟态超级基因可以被归纳为以前不同假说的一个融合:它是单基因控制的,但得到了多种功能突变的帮助。(生物谷Bioon.com)

生物谷推荐的英文摘要

Nature                doi:10.1038/nature13112

doublesex is a mimicry supergene

K. Kunte,  W. Zhang,  A. Tenger-Trolander,  D. H. Palmer,  A. Martin,  R. D. Reed,  S. P. Mullen  & M. R. Kronforst

One of the most striking examples of sexual dimorphism is sex-limited mimicry in butterflies, a phenomenon in which one sex—usually the female—mimics a toxic model species, whereas the other sex displays a different wing pattern1. Sex-limited mimicry is phylogenetically widespread in the swallowtail butterfly genus Papilio, in which it is often associated with female mimetic polymorphism1, 2, 3. In multiple polymorphic species, the entire wing pattern phenotype is controlled by a single Mendelian ‘supergene’4. Although theoretical work has explored the evolutionary dynamics of supergene mimicry5, 6, 7, 8, 9, there are almost no empirical data that address the critical issue of what a mimicry supergene actually is at a functional level. Using an integrative approach combining genetic and association mapping, transcriptome and genome sequencing, and gene expression analyses, we show that a single gene, doublesex, controls supergene mimicry in Papilio polytes. This is in contrast to the long-held view that supergenes are likely to be controlled by a tightly linked cluster of loci4. Analysis of gene expression and DNA sequence variation indicates that isoform expression differences contribute to the functional differences between dsx mimicry alleles, and protein sequence evolution may also have a role. Our results combine elements from different hypotheses for the identity of supergenes, showing that a single gene can switch the entire wing pattern among mimicry phenotypes but may require multiple, tightly linked mutations to do so.

(责任编辑:liu.yu)

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